Alfianty Tadjuddin Ayu Pertiwi Eka Purwanti
15B01060 15B01062 15B01064
State University of Makassar
In a language course, materials are designed to support teaching and learning process. The materials include “anything which can be used to facilitate the learning of a language” (Tomlinson, 2003). They can be used to inform the learners about the language, to provide experience of the language in use, and to stimulate language use or to help learners to make discoveries about the language for themselves (Tomlinson, 2003). To aid the learners in language learning, the materials developers need to construct the materials thoughtfully in evaluating, adapting, and producing them. This is really valuable because the course materials are made to fulfill the users’ needs. Therefore, the materials developers should consider carefully who, where, and how the materials will be used.
A. Materials Evaluation
In the first topic, the authors will discuss about the definition, principles, and criteria development for materials evaluation. It is according to Chapter 1 entitled “Materials Evaluation” in “Developing Materials for Language Teaching” (Tomlinson, 2003).
B. Instructional Design for a Coursebook
In this second topic, the authors will discuss about how to design a coursebook using systemic functional theory. It consists of ELT coursebook as communicative act and the application of systemic functional theory. It is related to Chapter 3 of “Developing Materials for Language Teaching” which is entitled “A Coursebook is What It is because of What It has to Do: An Editor’s Perspective” (Wala, 2003).
C. Materials Development
In the third topic, the authors emphasize on the development of electronic materials, how the materials contribute to the language learning, and how to build an electronic learning environment. It is based on “Developing Electronic Materials for Language Teaching” in Chapter 12 of “Developing Materials for Language Teaching” (Derewianka, 2003).
D. Materials for Target Level
This last topic focuses on the beginner level which discuss the materials and the alternative materials and coursebook for beginners. It is accordance with chapter 15 entitled “Materials for Beginners” written by Carlos Islam in “Developing Materials for Language Teaching” (2003).
In language course, sometimes, the materials are not suitable, either with the learners, the teachers, or the level of the course. It is because the developers only focus on the features and specification of the material itself. Whereas, some features and specifications became a waste because it was not supported with relevant resources and purposes. Hopefully, the authors can provide a lot of information and consideration in developing course materials through this paper for the readers.
A. Materials Evaluation
Materials evaluation is a procedure that involves measuring the value (or potential value) of a set of learning materials. It involves making judgements about the effect of the materials on the people using them and it tries to measure some or all of the following:
a. The appeal of the materials to the learners (i.e. Are the materials attractive?)
b. The validity of the materials (i.e. Is what they teach worth teaching?)
c. The ability of the materials to interest the learners and the teachers
d. The ability of the materials to motivate the learners (i.e. to stimulate the learners to want to give time and energy to the materials)
e. The potential learning value of the materials
f. The assistance given to the teachers in terms of preparation, delivery and assessment
g. The flexibility of the materials (e.g. the extent to which it is easy for a teacher to adapt the materials to suit a particular context)
2. Principles of Materials Evaluation
Most evaluations by teachers are impressionistic, or at best are aided by an ad hoc and very subjective list of criteria. In my view it is very important that evaluations (even the most informal ones) are driven by a set of principles and that these principles are articulated by the evaluator(s) prior to the evaluation. In this way greater validity and reliability can be achieved and fewer mistakes are likely to be made. In developing a set of principles it is useful to consider the following.
a. The evaluator’s theory of learning and teaching
All teachers develop theories of learning and teaching which they apply in their classrooms (even though they are often unaware of doing so). It is useful for teachers to try to achieve an articulation of their theories of teaching by reflecting on their practice. In this way they can learn a lot about themselves and about the learning process, and they can use their theories as a basis for developing criteria for the evaluation of materials.
Here are some of their theories, which they have articulated as a result of reflection on my own and other teachers’ practice:
1) Language learners only succeed if learning is a positive, relaxed and enjoyable experience.
2) Language teachers teach most successfully if they can gain some enjoyment themselves from the materials they are using.
3) Learners only learn what they really need or want to learn.
4) Materials should help the learners to connect the learning experience in the classroom to their own life outside the course.
5) Materials should engage the emotions of learners. Laughter, joy, excitement, sorrow and anger can promote learning, neutrality cannot.
b. Learning Theory
It is important that the materials evaluator considers the findings of learning research and decides which of its findings are convincing and applicable. These include:
1) Deep processing of language is required if effective and durable learning is to take place (Craik and Lockhart, 1972). This means that the focus should normally be on the meaning.
2) Affective engagement is essential for effective and durable learning.
3) Making mental connections is a crucial aspect of the learning process.
4) Multidimensional processing of language is essential for successful learning and involves the learner creating a mental representation through sensory imaging (especially visualization), emotional associations and the use of the inner voice.
5) The learners should be given opportunities to use the target language to achieve communicative purposes.
6) Materials should take into account that learners differ in learning styles.
3. Types of Materials Evaluation
There are many different types of materials evaluation. It is possible to apply the basic principles of materials evaluation to all types of evaluation but it is not possible to make generalizations about procedures which apply to all types.
a. Pre-use evaluation
Pre-use evaluation involves making predictions about the potential value of materials for their users. Often pre-use evaluation is impressionistic, subjectivity and reliable. This is especially true if more than two evaluators conduct the evaluation independently and then average their conclusions.
b. Whilst-use evaluation
This involves measuring the value of materials whilst using them or whilst observing them being used. It can be more objective and reliable than pre-use evaluation as it makes use of measurement rather than prediction. Most of the above can be estimated during an open-ended, impressionistic observation of materials in use but greater reliability can be achieved by focusing on one criterion at a time and by using pre-prepared instruments of measurement.
c. Post-use evaluation
Post-use evaluation is the most valuable (but least administered) type of evaluation as it can measure the actual effects of the materials on the users. It can measure the short-term effect as regards motivation, impact, achievability, instant learning and such long-term effect as durable learning and application.
4. Developing Criteria for Materials Evaluation
It is extremely useful to develop a set of formal criteria for use on a particular evaluation and then to use that set as a basis for developing subsequent context-specific sets. Initially this is demanding and time-consuming, but it not only helps the evaluators to clarify their principles of language learning and teaching but it also ensures that future evaluations (both formal and informal) are systematic, rigorous and, above all, principled. One way of developing a set of criteria is as follows.
a. Brainstorm a list of universal criteria
Universal criteria apply to any language learning materials anywhere for any learners. Brainstorming a random list of such criteria is a very useful way of beginning an evaluation, especially if you phrase the criteria as questions, for examples:
1) Do the materials provide useful opportunities for the learners to think for themselves?
2) Are the instructions clear?
3) Do materials cater for different preferred learning styles?
4) Are the materials likely to achieve affective engagement?
b. Subdivide some of the criteria
It is useful to subdivide some of the criteria into more specific questions, so that you can use the answers to make decisions. For example, “Are the instruction clear?”. Such a subdivision can help to pinpoint specific aspects of the materials which could gain from revision or adaptation.
c. Monitor and revise the list of universal criteria
Monitor the list and rewrite it according to the following criteria:
1) Is each question an evaluation question?
2) Does each question only ask one question?
3) Is each question answerable?
4) Is each question free of dogma?
5) Is each question reliable in the sense that other evaluators would interpret it in the same way?
d. Conducting the evaluation
From experience I have found the most effective way of conducting an evaluation is to:
1) Organize criteria under category headings
2) give a score for each criterion.
3) write comments at the end of each category;
4) write a brief report highlighting those points which will help make decisions about selection or adaptation.
B. Instructional Design of a Coursebook
1. ELT Coursebook as a Communicative Act
As a learning source, a coursebook is designed to fulfill the needs, either the needs of the learners, the teachers, publisher, the writer, or as syllabus outcomes/guidelines. It depends on the person and the place where the materials development is processed. A coursebook is not only about the approach and methodology the book adopts, the interests, appropriateness, and effectiveness of the texts and tasks, the achievement, the assessment, or even the specifications—number of pages, size, quality of paper, design and layout price—and availability of other components of the packages—CDs, workbooks, teacher guides, and other resources. It should be developed more thoughtfully because it is a collection of choices made from a variety of options.
The coursebook can be considered a communicative act of itself, but it is also a dynamic artefact that contributes to and creates meaning together with other participants in the context of language teaching. Its presence is to fulfill a need, a purpose, to perform a function, and to convey meaning. So, as a communicative act, a coursebook exists to communicate meaning, just as the existence of language. It should perform specific functions in specific contexts. In other words, to understand better the roles and functions of a coursebook and the resources, the materials developers can relate some basic concepts of Systemic Functional Linguistic theory to ELT coursebook.
2. An Application of Systemic Functional Theory
Come across as systemic functional theory, ‘language is as it is because of what it has to do’ (Halliday, 1978: 19). It means that the choice of linguistic sign, the word and the ways in which words are combined in the clause, are related to the function(s) to which the language is being put. Taking this perspective into coursebook, it is stated that a coursebook is as it is because of what it has to do. It fails to convey its meaning and perform its function when adequate or appropriate resources fail to be employed. Such a perspective provides a more functionally focused way of reviewing or evaluating coursebooks where the questions the reviewer asks of the book are twofold—How ‘is’ the book? What does the book have to do? And what is the correlation between the two?
Similar to language, based on the functional linguistics, coursebooks exist for and are shaped by a purpose within a particular context of use, culture, and ideology. We are not just focus upon coursebooks, but also upon their contexts. The coursebook forms a response to a complex social need that is constructed by the pedagogical situation in which it is produced. The social knowledge in that constitutes this need is shared by teacher and students, who participate together in the social conditions of its construction: the classroom environment.
There are three key dimensions of register theory in functional linguistics. Those are the register variables of mode (amount of feedback and role of language/coursebook), tenor (role relations of power and solidarity between speaker/listener and, in our case between coursebook and teacher/learner) and field (topic or focus of activity) which can be used to explain why language is, or, in our case, the coursebook is, the way it is.
The concept of genre can be used to describe the context of culture for coursebooks, by exploring the staged, step-by-step structure cultures institution. As defined by Pare and Smart (1992), it is ‘a distinctive profile of regularities across four dimensions: a set of texts, the composing processes involved in creating these texts, the reading practices used to interpret them, and the social roles performed by readers and writers. It is these roles and composing and reading processes that really tell us what a coursebook is. If we wish to change the genre of the coursebook, we must change the elements of the situation that reproduces it because the genre arises from the situation. Therefore, editors and other materials developers must be knowledgeable about the situation within which the coursebook will operate and the situation that gave rise to the particular genre of coursebook in the first place. In other words, they must be well aware of the context of use as well as the correlation of this to material design.
The role and function of materials in a language curriculum system is defined with respect to content (the syllabus) and with the respect to learner and teacher roles (Richard and Rodgers, 1997). While, the role of a coursebook reflects or must reflect decisions concerning its primary goal and form, the relation the coursebook holds to other sources of input and the abilities of the teacher. In designing coursebook, the authors must take teacher’s current views and skills seriously; recognize the practical opportunities and drawbacks of any innovation, not only on learners but on teachers and educational institutions; anticipate change by a gradual movement towards new ways of looking at language (Hopkins, 1995: 14).
A higher level of context is the level of ideology. Our use of language will also be influenced by our ideological positions: the values we hold (consciously and unconsciously), the biases and perspectives we adopt. Coursebook will, directly or indirectly, communicate sets of social and cultural values that are inherent in their make-up. A curriculum (and teaching materials form part of this) cannot be neutral because it has to reflect a view of social order and express a value system implicitly or explicitly (Cunningsworth, 1995: 90)
In the process of planning and development, editors and other materials developers must ask the following questions of coursebooks:
a. How do learners (and teachers) use coursebooks?
b. How is the coursebook structured for use?
c. What is the context in which the coursebook will be used?
d. What dimensions of context have an impact on coursebook use?
e. Which aspects of the coursebook and its use will be affected by particular dimensions of the context?
f. What view of the world, of English, of learning English, of the teacher and of the learner is presented explicitly and implicitly by the coursebook?
Just as in language, a functional perspective would say that meanings are realized through words and structures that are in turn realized through sounds and letters, in coursebooks, syllabus objectives are realized through a methodology for language teaching that underlies unit and task design and text selection. Similar to language, each level of the coursebook must relate to the other systematically and, within the level itself, be governed by its own rules for structure and function.
ELT coursebook can be explored by using a functional perspective to explore the kinds of meaning a coursebooks communicates in the contexts within which it operates and the levels along which it is structured. Any semiotic mode develops resources for fulfilling three kinds of broad communicative functions (metafunctions in Halliday’s terminology) or for making three main kinds of meaning simultaneously—ideational, interpersonal, and textual.
a. The Ideational Metafunction
In language, this is the realization of the ‘field’ of discourse circumscribing what the speakers are ‘engaged in doing’ (Halliday, 1978: 222). In the context of the coursebook, the ideational metafunction would be the actual content that the coursebook has to convey—topics, themes, grammar rules, and conventions of usage, etc.
b. The Interpersonal Metafunction
In language, the ‘interpersonal’ metafunction comprises uses of language representative of the ‘social and personal relations’ (Halliday, 1973: 40). In the context of the coursebook, the interpersonal function is performed the narratorial voice and the positioning of the teachers and leaners vis-à-vis the coursebook narrator voice.
c. The Textual Metafunction
The ‘textual’ function, finally, ensures the effectiveness of a communicative act by providing a texture incorporating the ‘remaining strands of meaning potential’ into ‘the fabric of linguistic structure (Halliday, 1973: 42). In the relation to the coursebook, we can ask how the ideational and interpersonal aspects of meaning come together to form a coherent whole in the materials.
When we look at the instructional design of the coursebook as a semantic system, we begin to understand it as a system organized as sets of choices. Each choice in the system acquires its meanings against the backdrop of other choices that could have been made. This semiotic interpretation of the ‘system’ of the instructional design of a coursebook, allows us to consider the appropriacy or inappropriacy of different choices of resources within the coursebook at various levels, in relation to their contexts of use. Therefore, an editor must be able to visualize how the three metafunctions can come together coherently in a manner in which the agendas of the various stakeholders are satisfactorily addressed.
Following the discussion above, an editor can ask the following questions of the coursebook planned or being developed:
a. What are the resources available for making meaning? How are they being used?
b. What are the different meanings that are being conveyed simultaneously through the various choices that have been made?
c. Is there congruence between the meanings conveyed by the resources chosen and the objectives or intentions of the materials developers?
d. How can resources be chosen more effectively to convey meaning?
Extending and applying principles of systemic functional linguistics in the analysis of coursebook units reveals the systems and networks of choices engaged in and created (wittingly and unwittingly, voluntarily and involuntarily) in the process of construction of knowledge within a coursebook. This can serve as a framework for understanding the ideological underpinnings of coursebooks and explicating the positioning, within the coursebook, of the teacher and the learner, of language learning as well as of the coursebook itself.
C. Materials Development
1. Developing Electronic Materials for Language Teaching
There are three major of materials development, interrelated dimensions of electronic materials that have proven beneficial to L2 learning: hypermedia, multimedia, and communication media.
Hypermedia (originally ‘hypertext’) refers to the capacity to make links between ‘bits’ of information. A link may be: internal to the current page, between elements of a particular website or CD-ROM, and between one site and another site on the web.
While the nodes were originally restricted to pieces of text, she included a variety of media: static text, animated text, sound, voice, still graphics, animated graphics, video.
c. Communication Media
With the advent of widespread use of local area networking and the World Wide Web, interpersonal communication has become a powerful factor in the development of electronic materials. Communications can take several forms: e-mail, bulletin boards, discussion lists, chat rooms, icq, MUDs and MOOS, and video conferencing.
2. Contribution to Language Learning
Derewianka (2003) argued that all of the above resources are currently making a contribution to the language learning enterprise in various ways, but that a fourth phase is now developing where such options are incorporated into an integrated electronic learning environment, posing significant challenges for tha materials developer. How electronic materials can enhance the experience of learning to read in a second language, how such materials can support the learning of L2 writing and finally, how developers can create learning environment that integrate all the previously discussed attributes of electronic materials.
a. Enhancing Reading through Electronic Media
Reading is a highly a complex activity that plays a critical role in the process of learning another language. The reader operates at many levels at once, integrating a variety of skills and strategies while seeking to construct meaning. A role for electronic materials in developing practicing lower-level skills, one thing that computers can do well is to help develop automacity. Fluent readers automatically recognize the majority of frequently used words without resorting to phonic analysis or contextual information, thus freeing up their ability to give attention to higher-level skils such as inferencing and evaluating (Stanovich, 1993; Adams, 1990).
L2 readers tend to give more attention to lower-level skills such as sounding out words, thereby decreasing their capacity to focus on meaning. The L2 learner needs to develop automatic recognition of a certain number of high frequency lexical items. By using computers to develop these skills, teachers are freed up to assist learners with those aspects of reading that benefit more from human interaction, such as interpretation and critique.
b. Making Reading Easier
Computers can make life much easier for the second language reader. The materials developer can insert a variety of tools that make the process of reading much smoother. In particular, when a reader comes across unknown word, the computer can provide quick, on-the-spot assistance. Using hypermedia links, for example, the developer is able to provide immediate access to a dictionary. At some sites, a small dictionary window automatically opens when a reading text is selected. The reader can simply type in any unknown word and be provided with the dictionary definition in either L1 or L2.
c. Enhancing Writing through Electronic Media
There are number of recursive phases in this process:
1) Modelling the genre
2) Demonstrating the process
3) Brainstorming and researching
5) Conferencing and revising
6) Editing and publishing
When writing a text, the writer needs to consider the purpose. Electronic media can be used to introduce L2 writers to the genres of the target culture and language. The TeleNex project, for example, provides a bank of texts covering a range of genres (stories, procedures, recounts, explanations and so on) for teachers of primary L2 learners, each analyzed in terms of generic structure and grammatical features.
Before writing a text, demonstrating the process is useful for students to see how such a text is created. This could be done on the computer through an animated tutorial. And then, the writer needs to have something to write about. These ideas can come from brainstorming, drawing on previous experience or from researching. The process of researching is made much simpler by the accessibility of information on the internet. Finding websites appropriate to the language level and age of the students is not straightforward, however. Electronic materials designed to teach writing should include information on how to find, select, and evaluate information sites.
Using a word processor, students are more motivated to write and tend to produce longer texts. The availability of aids such as an on-line thesaurus and dictionary also contribute to the success of the draft and extend the language of the student.
An important element of the writing process is receiving feedback from others during the drafting stage. It is difficult, however, for a teacher, especially with a large class, to have on-the-spot, individual consultations with students. And tools such as spell-checkers, syntax alerts and autoformating assist at the editing stage.
3. Building an Electronic Learning Environment
In study, Jacobson et al. (1996), drawing on Situated Cognition Theory, designed an electronic learning environment that engaged students in real-life, problem-based situations but which also involved the development of more general concepts. The program used hyperlinks which allowed for three dimensional crisscrossing of the conceptual landscape. The environment included provision for:
a. Modelling the knowledge in an authentic activity;
b. Supporting the students doing the task through scaffolding or coaching;
c. Allowing students to articulate their knowledge and to confront ineffective strategies or misconceptions;
d. Empowering the students by gradually fading or with drawing support.
If teacher of L2 learners were to create a wish-list to guide developers of such sites, it might include the following:
a. Learning materials
b. Pathway for learning
c. Interpersonal communication
D. Materials for Target Level
1. Materials for Beginners
Jill Johnson (1995) in her article, Who Needs Another Coursebook?’ criticized second language learning beginner coursebooks for being all the same in terms of thematic topics and their approach to language learning and teaching. She was especially concerned with the emphasis on talking in the target language from day one of learning a language.
Jill Johnson has a point about three coursebooks are Headstart is written by Liz and John Soars, New Interchange is by Jack Richards along with Jonathan Hull and Briony Beaven, and Atlas by David Nunan. All the coursebooks are aimed at young adult and adult beginner learners. New Interchange and Atlas are marketed in East and South-East Asia, whereas Headstart is targeted at a European audience. The following points are the current convention of the three coursebook mentioned above.
There are many of the same topics appeared in three beginner coursebooks. The topics used in these three coursebooks include vocabulary and functions that are potentially useful to language learners from any culture. They can be especially useful to those learners who need quick exposure to survival language skills. They can be especially useful to those learners who need quick exposure to survival language skills.
A publisher’s concern with making coursebook content and activities transparent and easy to use is understanding, but teachers know better than anyone that the language and activities need to be consistently engaging in order for the learner to pay attention and to create the conditions for acquisition to take place.
b. Approach and Methodology
Like most people searching for clues to a book’s design, the promotional blurb on the back covers before looking at each unit’s exercises in detail. Headstart on current methodologies and approaches is very conventional for EFL beginner coursebooks, very teachable and that many novice teachers would find its methodology transparent and well-structured but it is not communicative, ground-breaking or new. Like Headstart, New Interchange are listen and repeat or read and practice activities, focus on both accuracy and fluency and multi-skills syllabus.
Atlas to be radically in approach from Headstart, where Headstart’s activities mostly practice short pieces of simplified dialogue and text, the language presented in Atlas would be more complex and longer. Atlas would emphasize a wide, varied and engaging input focusing on meaning, fluency and exposure.
Although each book differs in degree, they all follow a behavioral approach to language learning, borrow extensively from audiolingual pedagogy and focus on form accuracy with very little attention given to meaning and fluency.
c. Oral Production
A problem with all beginner material, not just the three books reviewed above, lies with the idea that students want to learn the language to speak it, so from day one that is what we try to do, teach learner to speak. However, as beginner learners do not actually know much about the language or anything of the language, they have to mimic the teacher or the tape and slowly build up competence in the target language by rote learning. This approach may create the illusion of satisfying a false learner expectation of being able to say something meaningful in the target language from the first day, but in fact probably damages the learner’s prospects of becoming fluent in the target language within a reasonable period of time.
d. Learner Style
The conventional beginners’ textbooks are strongly biased towards the learning preferences of analytic, studial, left brain learners at the expense of global, experiential, right brain learners. This approach that beginners’ textbook takes of emphasizing an analytic, step by step linear method to the learning linguistic structures is detrimental for two reasons.
e. Coursebook Sales
It is not surprising that the conventional EFL beginner’s textbook sells when there is nothing else to challenge it. The commercial coursebook of chapter are very good at clearly presenting essential vocabulary and simple linguistic structures, as well as providing user-friendly lessons and progression. These books are valuable teaching tools and are successful but clearly cater for one style of learning and teaching.
By providing an alternative style of coursebook, publisher would not only capture a market made up of teachers who are willing to experiment and who are tired of the conventional, but teachers, students and institutions will also be encouraged to buy materials. The established coursebooks will continue to be purchased alongside books that provide different content matter and an alternative pedagogy and that these books would be used to supplement each other as needed.
2. Alternative Beginner Materials and Coursebooks
a. A change of approach
Common sense would dictate that the immediate objectives of any beginner’s language course should be the development of learners’ language competence via a comprehension approach to learning.
Comprehension approaches to language learning are based on the premises that conversational fluency will develop as the result of learning to understand a language (Swaffar and Woodruff, 1978; Winitz, 1981). Language instruction grounded in a comprehension approach, if done thoughtfully, can avoid the problems of overloading and stress often involved in conventional beginner level textbooks.
b. An ageing methodology for new materials
Total Physical Response, which has been around for over thirty years now, is a learning method grounded in a comprehension approach. A typically TPR class following Asher’s model consists of the teacher instructions. As Asher (1977) points out, this method is successful because it caters for the majority of learners who seem to be kinesthetic in their preferred perceptual learning styles as well as global and experiential in their general styles.
c. TPR Plus
Tomlinson (1994) claims that TPR Plus is an approach rather than a method as there are no set procedures, unlike Asher’s model of TPR. A class using TPR Plus approach always includes a TPR phase, the objective of which would be to provide a ‘relaxed, comprehensible base for other activities in the lesson’ (Tomlinson, 1994). In Tomlinson’s model, the TPR phase is not restricted to teacher commands directing students to perform actions. It also involves ‘dramatization of stories told by the teacher, playing of games instructed by the teacher, cooking of dishes from recipes given by the teacher, painting of murals instructed by the teacher and searches for hidden bounty directed by the teacher’.
TPR Plus has the potential of being able to incorporate pragmatic functions of language into its instruction which is something that could not be done so easily with Asher’s original model for TPR, and is something which would be a complete innovation for EFL coursebooks, especially at beginner’s level.
d. An Example of Alternative Materials
Tomlinson and his colleague, Chris Mares developed for a beginner level course for university or college ESL students in the USA (2003). The materials offer a real alternative to coursebooks such as Headstart, New Interchange and Atlas in both thematic content and approach. These materials include speaking activities and attention to linguistic and phonological forms.
Materials evaluation is initially a time-consuming and difficult undertaking. Approaching it in the principled, systematic and rigorous ways suggested above can not only help to make and record vital discoveries about the materials being evaluated but can also help the evaluators to learn a lot about materials, about learning and teaching and about themselves.
Systemic functional theory offers useful tools for examining the kinds of meaning that a coursebook embeds in its discourse. It offers a different vantage point from which to explore the materials development exercise – a coursebook is as it is because of what it has to do.
The issues that the development of electronic materials is manifold: the technical, the technological, the practical, the ideological, and so on. Most of the programs and materials discussed above have used electronic technology to develop traditional literacy.
Although each book differs in degree, they all follow a behavioral approach to language learning, borrow extensively from audiolingual pedagogy and focus on form and accuracy with very little attention given to meaning and fluency.
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